fleursdartifice said: Hello. I've been doing research on the traditional Korean dance Cheonyongmu for a story (and was able to find excellent sources regarding this dance using the bibliography links in your resource page, thank you!) and I'm trying to dig more into the lives of the male dancers who performed this dance during the Joseon era. I believe that they would be from the chungmin class, but that's where I'm hitting my research roadblock. Would you be able to direct me or have tips of where else to look?

Well I’ve recently covered something similar: here

Your first and best bet is to look at the sources of your sources. Flip to the back of your books, or the end of your articles and there should be citations and/or a bibliography (otherwise it’s not a good source). 

Here’s the best steps you can do:

  1. Trace the bibliographies of the sources you already have. 
  2. Search for bibliographies or annotated bibliographies relating to the subject
  3. Identify key words, phrases, and “shelving terms” in your books or articles and search based on these. “chungmin”, “joseon arts and culture”, “joseon”, “traditional korean dance”, “cheonyongmu”, “social structure”, “chungmin class” 
  4. Having trouble with “joseon”? That’s because many works romanize it as “Chosŏn”. When I type in Choson into google + bibliography, I run into one of the central places for studying Korea in the US (Hawaii, naturally). There’s a bibliography on Social Structure and one on Dance. Just between those two, there’s 60+ sources you can look up, search through, etc. 
  5. If you do all of this and still can’t find the information you’re looking for, congrats, you’ve just discovered a dissertation topic. 

ATTENTION HUMANITIES/SOCIAL SCIENCES/CRITICAL THEORY NERDS

annaham:

Duke University Press has around 1,600 of their academic titles available to read online FOR FREE on eDuke Books. You can search by title, author and/or subject! Here is their general list of subjects.

This is a fantastic option for students who need textbooks, research material(s), or individual chapters for various projects but who may not want to cart a ton of books around, need an iPad or browser-friendly format, don’t want to buy books for an intense markup only to get a few bucks back at the end of the semester—or, if you’re not a student but are interested in theory and such (hi). 

eDuke also adds new books sometimes, so keep checking back.

(via ushistoryminuswhiteguys)

ushistoryminuswhiteguys:

Hit the Source: Research, bibliographies, and databases. 
Sources are an interesting thing. If someone throws enough of them at you, you’re inclined to believe that what they’re saying is true, that all the sources are relevant, and that they’re all unbiased and accurate sources. 
This is not always true. Just like the news outlets, some of them have specific biases, or present information in misleading ways. But sources can be incredibly important, and immensely helpful for writing papers. 
Here’s why, as explained by Grinnell:

Citation is important because it is the basis of academics, that is, the pursuit of knowledge. In the academic endeavor, individuals look at evidence and reason about that evidence in their own individual ways. That is, taking what is already known, established, or thought, they use their reasoning power to create new knowledge. In creating this knowledge, they must cite their sources accurately for three main reasons:
Reason One: Because ideas are the currency of academia
Reason Two: Because failing to cite violates the rights of the person who originated the idea. (Implicit or Explicit claims the idea is yours is plagiarism). 
Reason Three: Because academics need to be able to trace the genealogy of ideas 

Read and save the PDF here. I have removed the explanations that follow the reasons for a quick read, but I recommend you go back and read them. It also answers the question: “Doesn’t the ownership of ideas reek of Capitalism?”, and gives a great run-down of citing yourself, citing other people, extended quotations, and laziness in writing.  
In summary: Ideas are valuable, they have ‘ownership’ and ‘credit’ to the people who had them, and tracing how and why ideas change can help you learn. Pretending ideas are of your own invention is plagiarism. 
So what about doing research? People paste long bibliographies and that doesn’t seem to do anything. Why are those needed? 
Bibliographies and Annotated Bibliographies are a list of sources regarding a particular subject or topic - or directly relevant to a particular paper. They may look something like this:

— Screencap of Bibliography: Free People of Color and Creoles of Color
Sometimes, bibliographies are annotated, meaning they give a short description of each entry - perhaps a paragraph of information explaining each source, its usefulness, a summary, or other pertinent information. Annotated bibliographies can cut down on the time you spend trying to determine if a source is relevant for you. 
Purdue OWL gives samples of Annotated Bibliographies here. Here’s a student project from U Michigan that shows an annotated bibliography regarding Chicanos and identity. Here's a much more elaborate annotated bibliography regarding Native American history in Federal Documents. You can see there's a big difference between an extensive annotated bibliography, and a concise one. Both formats, however, can tell you what the bibliography's author thinks of the sources. 
This means that the author of the bibliography may be biased or disregard things that aren’t useful to them, but may be helpful to you! 
The accepted citation format for history and art history is Chicago style, a quick guide can be found here.
Citations tell you: Who wrote or edited something, where it was published, who published it, when it was published, and the title. It can even tell you the volume, edition, and translator. 
When you find a book or journal related to something you’re trying to learn more about, you can look at footnotes, or the bibliography in order to find where they got their information. 
Say I’m looking up slave culture in New Orleans:

Donaldson, Gary A. A Window on Slave Culture: Dances at Congo Square in New Orleans, 1800-1862.” Journal of Negro History 69, no. 2 (Spring 1984): 63-72.

I find this article online, and access it through a database. (I used JStor, in this case.) It was published in 1984, so I already know that anything this paper cites came out in 1984 or before 1984. 
The footnotes (or end notes, in this case, because they came at the end of the paper) tell me where the author got their information:

This author even annotated their endnotes, telling us more information about the sources they used. If any of those end notes seem relevant to me, I can write them down, and look for them later. 
But since this was published in 1984, it might also be helpful to see who has mentioned this paper since 1984 for more current information. 
JStor and Google Scholar (as well as other databases) have helpful buttons like these:


"2 items citing this item"
Other items (written works by the author)
References
and Related Items.

Clicking on “2 items citing this item” gives me a list of things published after the article came out in 1984 that cite this. It actually gives me 3 things when I click on the button:


Pinkster: An Atlantic Creole Festival in a Dutch-American Context
Jeroen Dewulf The Journal of American Folklore Vol. 126, No. 501 (Summer 2013) pp. 245-271 Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5406/jamerfolk.126.501.0245



"Midnight Scenes and Orgies": Public Narratives of Voodoo in New Orleans and Nineteenth-Century Discourses of White Supremacy Michelle Y. Gordon American Quarterly Vol. 64, No. 4 (December 2012) pp. 767-786 

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/41809523



Enclosure and Run: The Fugitive Recyclopedia of Harryette Mullen’s Writing Robin Tremblay-McGaw MELUS Vol. 35, No. 2, Multi-Ethnic Poetics (SUMMER 2010) pp. 71-94 Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20720704



They were published in 2010, 2012, and 2013, and while they may not all be helpful, this is how you get a good start looking for things that can help you in your research. It’s a bit like a treasure hunt. You have to follow the directions and clues to find the information you need or want. "Scholarly peer review" is a phrase that means that the information you see has been reviewed, critiqued, or tested by other scholars to see if the information holds up. You can also search for reviews of journal articles. 

Check your sources are related to what you want to talk about or are claiming, see if they are legitimate. 


Writing a Thesis Statement - UNC 
Scholarly vs. Non-Scholarly 1 | 2 | 3
Finding Academic Articles
The CRAAP test
Distinguishing among Scholarly, Popular, and Trade Journals
Locating a Scholarly or Professional Journal 
Evaluating Sources
Why Everything Isn’t Available Online and Free
How to Read Citations (video)
Berkeley Primary History Sources
Yale’s Art History & Archaeology source list & Guide
Previous USH-WG Guide

ushistoryminuswhiteguys:

Hit the Source: Research, bibliographies, and databases. 

Sources are an interesting thing. If someone throws enough of them at you, you’re inclined to believe that what they’re saying is true, that all the sources are relevant, and that they’re all unbiased and accurate sources. 

This is not always true. Just like the news outlets, some of them have specific biases, or present information in misleading ways. But sources can be incredibly important, and immensely helpful for writing papers. 

Here’s why, as explained by Grinnell:

Citation is important because it is the basis of academics, that is, the pursuit of knowledge. In the academic endeavor, individuals look at evidence and reason about that evidence in their own individual ways. That is, taking what is already known, established, or thought, they use their reasoning power to create new knowledge. In creating this knowledge, they must cite their sources accurately for three main reasons:

Reason One: Because ideas are the currency of academia

Reason Two: Because failing to cite violates the rights of the person who originated the idea. (Implicit or Explicit claims the idea is yours is plagiarism). 

Reason Three: Because academics need to be able to trace the genealogy of ideas 

Read and save the PDF here. I have removed the explanations that follow the reasons for a quick read, but I recommend you go back and read them. It also answers the question: “Doesn’t the ownership of ideas reek of Capitalism?”, and gives a great run-down of citing yourself, citing other people, extended quotations, and laziness in writing.  

In summary: Ideas are valuable, they have ‘ownership’ and ‘credit’ to the people who had them, and tracing how and why ideas change can help you learn. Pretending ideas are of your own invention is plagiarism. 

So what about doing research? People paste long bibliographies and that doesn’t seem to do anything. Why are those needed? 

Bibliographies and Annotated Bibliographies are a list of sources regarding a particular subject or topic - or directly relevant to a particular paper. They may look something like this:

image

— Screencap of Bibliography: Free People of Color and Creoles of Color

Sometimes, bibliographies are annotated, meaning they give a short description of each entry - perhaps a paragraph of information explaining each source, its usefulness, a summary, or other pertinent information. Annotated bibliographies can cut down on the time you spend trying to determine if a source is relevant for you. 

Purdue OWL gives samples of Annotated Bibliographies here. Here’s a student project from U Michigan that shows an annotated bibliography regarding Chicanos and identity. Here's a much more elaborate annotated bibliography regarding Native American history in Federal Documents. You can see there's a big difference between an extensive annotated bibliography, and a concise one. Both formats, however, can tell you what the bibliography's author thinks of the sources. 

This means that the author of the bibliography may be biased or disregard things that aren’t useful to them, but may be helpful to you! 

The accepted citation format for history and art history is Chicago style, a quick guide can be found here.

Citations tell you: Who wrote or edited something, where it was published, who published it, when it was published, and the title. It can even tell you the volume, edition, and translator. 

When you find a book or journal related to something you’re trying to learn more about, you can look at footnotes, or the bibliography in order to find where they got their information. 

Say I’m looking up slave culture in New Orleans:

Donaldson, Gary A. A Window on Slave Culture: Dances at Congo Square in New Orleans, 1800-1862.” Journal of Negro History 69, no. 2 (Spring 1984): 63-72.

I find this article online, and access it through a database. (I used JStor, in this case.) It was published in 1984, so I already know that anything this paper cites came out in 1984 or before 1984. 

The footnotes (or end notes, in this case, because they came at the end of the paper) tell me where the author got their information:

image

This author even annotated their endnotes, telling us more information about the sources they used. If any of those end notes seem relevant to me, I can write them down, and look for them later. 

But since this was published in 1984, it might also be helpful to see who has mentioned this paper since 1984 for more current information. 

JStor and Google Scholar (as well as other databases) have helpful buttons like these:

image

"2 items citing this item"

Other items (written works by the author)

References

and Related Items.

Clicking on “2 items citing this item” gives me a list of things published after the article came out in 1984 that cite this. It actually gives me 3 things when I click on the button:

Anonymous said: I'm reading Journey to the West right now - can you tell me about Chinese history during the time it was written, and about Indian history and the countries in between as well?

This is one of those questions whose answer could be the subject of multiple books — and probably is(!), as the turn of the Tang/Song Dynasties and the Silk Road’s history from India, Central Asia, and China. Here’s a few of my suggestions (that I have not read, and cannot vouch for in terms of quality):

  • Journeys on the Silk Road: A Desert Explorer, Buddha’s Secret Library, and the Unearthing of the World’s Oldest Printed Book - Joyce Morgan 
  • Silk Road - Valerie Hansen 
  • Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present - Christopher Beckwith
  • In the Footsteps of the Buddha: An Iconic Journey from India to China - Catalogue 
  • Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations, 600-1400 - Tensen Sen 
  • Xuanzang: A Buddhist Pilgrim On The Silk Road - Sally Wriggins 
  • When Asia Was the World: Traveling Merchants, Scholars, Warriors, and Monks Who Created the “Riches of the “East” - Stewart Gordon 

sevanslcanzate said: almost none of those links work anymore ://

I think it’s just the first four or so, as the account was deleted. 

Anonymous said: Recently, I am trying to make a grave fictional series. That is, fantasy is that is NOT whimsical OR reduces to people to pageants. Because it is difficult to find representation for diversity in fantasy, would making three separate countries based on Korea (prior to its division), Japan and China be considered offensive? I desire only to create a respectful representation, and an in-depth, human portrayal. Should this be done or be avoided?

That isn’t really my call. 

Please feel free to read through the Writing Resources post I made back in 2011 to educate yourself, however. And additionally, an old post that floated around on tumblr cheekily entitled, Gee, I don’t know how to research writing Characters of Color Respectfully. [Some of the first few links don’t work.] 

tryinad said: I am writing a story which has a fictional country located between Okinawa and China. Would it historically make sense for such a country to have a monarch with European blood (by way of political marriage) in the 20th century, and for this country to have its own language and retain it?

Short Answer: No. 

Medium Answer: Please don’t ask me to validate your placing more white people in power within fictional 20th century Asia. 

Long Answer: While historically, the 20th century did see European and American Imperialism, their rules usually came at the expense of the monarchies locally. By 1912, the Qing Dynasty had collapsed (post-Boxer Rebellion), and Sun Yat Sen became the political leader of China. While China was an ally in WWI, starting in 1917, by 1919, China’s Communist Party had formed and was gaining power. The ROC and Chang Kai Shek fled China by the 40’s, and (meanwhile) Japan gained an increasingly nationalistic sentiment that would lead them into WWII and to capture Manchuria by 1931. By 1939, Japan controlled much of China’s eastern coastlines. Korea was ruled by Japan by roughly around 1905-1910, and as for Japanese views and attitudes in the early-mid 20th century regarding foreigners in general the buzzwords you need to look up are:

  • Japanese Showa imperialism
  • Japanese ultranationalism & Japanese Nationalism
  • Amau Doctrine
  • Kōdōha
  • Fukoku Kyohei 
  • Racial Equality Proposal of 1919’s failure
  • End of the Anglo-Japanese alliance 1923
  • Imperial Rule Assistance Association

The islands that exist between Okinawa and China (aside from Taiwan), are known as the Diaoyutai/Senkaku islands, and has been contested by Japan, China PROC and China ROC, respectively. These Islands were under de jure US control from 1945-1972. 

But for European Leadership in the 20th century marrying into a royal family — by 1900, the people of China had an entire rebellion centered around the forceful removal of Christians and European Imperialist powers using the slogan "Support the Qing, exterminate the foreigners." 

I am fairly certain that any country in the 20th century would not have wanted a European marital bond, given that most of China and Japan were intent on removing unwanted foreign political influences in the first half of the century, and the second half would not have likely had any political marriages when military force was becoming the de facto method and means of viable political control — a marriage alliance means little when you have the threat of the atomic bomb, for example (thus, the Cold War). Similarly, many Europeans abandoned their Asian colonial islands during WWII — see: The Abandonment of Singapore, by the British.  

Between the Boxer Rebellion and….well, all of World War Two, the idea is nonsensical at best. Though if a country would retain their language despite foreign rulers, the answer is, as always — yes, and generally speaking such foreign rulers are doomed to fail if they do not learn the language of their own people. (See also: Yuan Dynasty China, the Goryeo Vassal state and Royal Court, the Mongol Hordes, the Qing Dynasty, etc for those who adopted the common language of their people and rulers.) 

If you chose another century, the answer would relatively be the same, in that a European power would be unlikely to marry into a Chinese or Japanese royal family and retain any power — but the reverse could be true. (There are many recorded offerings of secondary princesses or concubines being offered as wives to European powers, including the Pope. — in many instances, particularly in Yuan Dynasty China, marriages were meant to maintain political and military power through women. Mongolian princesses in particular were seen as more important than their husbands in conquered territories and kingdoms, and frequently their husbands were treated as expendable.) 

So not really, no. 

guardian:

How I photographed Tiananmen Square and ‘tank man’
Photographer Stuart Franklin tells his story of the 1989 protests, from peaceful demonstration to bloody crackdown, the iconic ‘tank man’. Read it here
Photo: Stuart Franklin/Magnum Photos

guardian:

How I photographed Tiananmen Square and ‘tank man’

Photographer Stuart Franklin tells his story of the 1989 protests, from peaceful demonstration to bloody crackdown, the iconic ‘tank man’. Read it here

Photo: Stuart Franklin/Magnum Photos

(Source: theguardian.com)

historicaltimes:

A photo by Catherine Henriette taken on June 3, 1989 shows a dissident student asking soldiers to go back home as crowds flood into central Beijing. The famous tank man showed up two days later.

historicaltimes:

A photo by Catherine Henriette taken on June 3, 1989 shows a dissident student asking soldiers to go back home as crowds flood into central Beijing. The famous tank man showed up two days later.

amamblog:

If you have ever admired Japanese woodblock prints for their amazing imagery, colors and compositions, you will be even more impressed when you learn about how they were made.  Oberlin College Library’s Special Collections department has just made available images of a fascinating illustrated book on the process of Japanese woodblock printmaking.  The book, titled Nishikie suritate junjo, was part of the renowned Mary A. Ainsworth collection of Japanese prints and artist’s books.  Ainsworth was an Oberlin graduate (OC 1889) who visited Japan in 1906 and spent the next twenty-five years building one of the best collections of Japanese prints of her day, which she bequeathed to Oberlin College in 1950.   During Japan’s Edo Period (1603-1868) polychrome woodblock prints were among the most famous products of the “Floating World” (Ukiyo), or world of entertainment.  Creating these multicolor images required a different woodblock for each color, and the book lays out these complex stages of printing one by one, using as an example a famous print from Andō Hiroshige’s series, The Fifty-three Stations of the Tokaidō.  For more images from the book, click here. To see three different impressions of this same print from the AMAM collection, search for “Rain at Shono” in the “Quick Search” box here.Click here for images of the entire The Fifty-three Stations of the Tokaidō series.

amamblog:

If you have ever admired Japanese woodblock prints for their amazing imagery, colors and compositions, you will be even more impressed when you learn about how they were made.  Oberlin College Library’s Special Collections department has just made available images of a fascinating illustrated book on the process of Japanese woodblock printmaking. 

The book, titled Nishikie suritate junjo, was part of the renowned Mary A. Ainsworth collection of Japanese prints and artist’s books.  Ainsworth was an Oberlin graduate (OC 1889) who visited Japan in 1906 and spent the next twenty-five years building one of the best collections of Japanese prints of her day, which she bequeathed to Oberlin College in 1950.   During Japan’s Edo Period (1603-1868) polychrome woodblock prints were among the most famous products of the “Floating World” (Ukiyo), or world of entertainment.  Creating these multicolor images required a different woodblock for each color, and the book lays out these complex stages of printing one by one, using as an example a famous print from Andō Hiroshige’s series, The Fifty-three Stations of the Tokaidō.  

For more images from the book, click here

To see three different impressions of this same print from the AMAM collection, search for “Rain at Shono” in the “Quick Search” box here.

Click here for images of the entire The Fifty-three Stations of the Tokaidō series.