A somewhat brief history of Japanese Imperial Occupation during WWII -

  • Japan invades Manchuria in 1931, claiming they are liberating the Manchus from the Chinese. They conquer Manchuria.
  • In 1936 they create a puppet state in Inner Mongolia.
  • In 1937 the second Sino-Japanese war occurs between Japan, Mao Zedong’s Communists, and Chang Kai-shek’s nationalists. Japan invades the Nationalist capital, Nanjing (also known as Nanking) in what is known as the Nanjing Massacre. The Nationalists and Communists form an uneasy alliance against the Japanese.
  • In 1940 Japan forms a tripartite pact with Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, creating is what is known at the Axis powers.
  • In 1941, what is known as the Pacific War begins - Japan invades Thailand, British Maylay, and Hong Kong, as well as bombing Pearl Harbor in Hawai’i. 
  • In 1942, the following happens: In January, Japan invaded Burma, the Dutch East Indies, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and captured Manila, Kuala Lumpur and Rabaul. After being driven out of Malaya, Allied forces in Singapore attempted to resist the Japanese during the Battle of Singapore but surrendered to the Japanese on 15 February 1942; about 130,000 Indian, British, Australian and Dutch personnel became prisoners of war. The pace of conquest was rapid: Bali and Timor. At the Battle of the Java Sea in late February and early March, the Japanese Navy inflicted a resounding defeat on the main ABDA naval force, under Admiral Karel Doorman. The Dutch East Indies campaign subsequently ended with the surrender of Allied forces on Java  and Sumatra.
  • In March and April of 1942 Japan air raided the Indian ocean, paving the way for assault on India and Burma.
  • In may 1942, Manila, Philippines is declared an open city, which Japan then occupies.
  • In the aftermath of the Japanese conquest of Burma, there was widespread disorder in eastern India, and a disastrous famine in Bengal, which ultimately caused up to 3 million deaths. In spite of these, and inadequate lines of communication, British and Indian forces attempted limited counter-attacks in Burma in early 1943.

I hope I didn’t miss too much. Basically that’s the order of where Japan invaded…

- Source/Reference: Wiki.

Angry Asian Girl: Why?

shensations:

I was not alive for the massacre, nor do I have any family members that were directly affected by it. But the Rape of Nanking was an attack on my people, a genocide that goes unnoticed by the majority of people when talking about World War II, and something that Japanese schoolbooks often refer to as “an incident”.

Ever since I was a little girl I’ve always been fascinated by this slaughter. I always wondered why it wasn’t something that I learned about in history class at school. Why the deaths of more than 300,000 people was reduced to a single sentence, sometimes not even that. Why the rape of more than 20,000 women went ignored. Numbers are the basis of studies and history, but who keeps these records? Who counted the dead and who asked the rape victims about their attacks? I don’t know the exact figures, no one ever will. But they exist, and this attack exists.

Now that it is 2011, it has been 74 years since the Japanese troops invaded my country and held beheading games and contests with my people. Those who were lucky enough to survive are now slipping into old age, into dementia and into death. With Japan’s reluctance to memorialize this incident, with their censored schoolbooks (and trust me, I know that China is not one to speak of censorship), the past is dying. History is dying.

I want to keep this alive, I want people to remember what happened in Nanking on July 7, 1937. Never forget, always remember. Remember Nanking. 

http://remembernanking.tumblr.com

Okay so I have a pretty “strong” stomach for most things that have Trigger Warnings but I am going to say I was pretty disturbed by the last picture on the first page of that blog so fair warning, it’s pretty graphic and bloody, and that lady might’ve been beheaded. (Er, decapitated? There’s a difference technically…)

(via fascinasians)

Shanghai’s Nanjing Road 2003 & 1930s

The Rape of Nanking should be remembered not only for the number of people slaughtered but for the cruel manner in which many met their deaths. Chinese men were used for bayonet practice and in decapitation contests. An estimated 20,000-80,000 Chinese women were raped. Many soldiers went beyond rape to disembowel women, slice off their breasts, nail them alive to walls. Fathers were forced to rape their daughters, and sons their mothers, as other family members watched. Not only did live burials, castration, the carving of organs, and the roasting of people become routine, but more diabolical tortures were practiced, such as hanging people by their tongues on iron hooks or burying people to their waists and watching them get torn apart by German shepherds. So sickening was the spectacle that even the Nazis in the city were horrified, one proclaiming the massacre to be the work of bestial machinery.

-

The rape of Nanking by Iris Chang.

(found Via here. Trigger warning for photos of disembodied heads.)

When people live extremely structured lives it makes sense that, when put in a situation without much structure at all, they will go off the handle and not really know when to stop.

(via thiswhitewidow)

Since so many people are reblogging this quote again, I’ve been very interested in its newfound popularity. This recent comment in particular caught my eye - I think it’s aiming for something that is correct but I don’t know that we could call something like the Rape of Nanjing unstructured, necessarily.

But - and I do think this is what happened - it does read exactly like the Stanford Prison experiment on a very real and very horrifying level. For anyone unfamiliar, the Stanford Prison Experiment was done by students and a professor at Stanford. A group of people was divided into ‘prisoners’ in the basement classrooms acting as the prison/cells and Prison Guards. The Professor became the Warden. They found that within six days, they had to shut down the experiment entirely. Enough ‘prisoners’ opted out: Prisoners had become passive, and Prison Guards inflicted physical and emotional abuse upon their prisoners. People began to internalize their roles of power, or lack thereof.

In otherwords, it’s the very structure of so much power that makes someone into the kind of person who would do this in their capacity as a soldier/guard. There is always structure when power is involved, and it can always be used and abused when hiding behind machine guns and uniforms.

According to one Japanese journalist embedded with Imperial forces at the time, “The reason that the [10th Army] is advancing to Nanking quite rapidly is due to the tacit consent among the officers and men that they could loot and rape as they wish.”[14]

Sadly, their structure from the very beginning was to do just that - abuse their power. This wasn’t chaotic. This was planned. And they followed through. That to me, is what is so horrorific. The Army intended to do this.

(via asianhistory)

Trebaol of Arabia: Also, in addition to the Stanford Prison Experiment analogy there was the road to war that was important in the changes seen in the Japanese army ideology. It is important to remember that during World War I, when Japan sided with the Triple Entente that German ships were captured, and German’s taken prisoner by the Japanese. They found their time in the camps so pleasant and hospitable that many stayed on in Japan, building communities and opening German shops. Within a decade however we see a Japan transformed. This is largely due to the usurping of the government by the Army. The return of the idea of bushido, but only after all the classic texts were gutted of fair treatment passages, leaving only the brutality as honor mantra. Then came the training of the recruits, which was organized in as dehumanizing a way as possible. Japanese recruits were lined up, paired off, then ordered to slap and punch each other until incapable of continuing, standing in formation. Anyone who failed to beat their comrades would be severely beaten by the officers. Within ten years you had an army more than capable of committing whatever atrocities the Army deemed fit. There was also the threats the army made to any dissenters, along with a number of assassinations of important figures opposed to the armies doctrines. If I remember correctly even famed Admiral Yamamoto was told that after dissenting so vociferously that if he returned to land or any government offices he’d be executed.

(via trebaolofarabia)

Everyone should read the book by Iris Chang if they can.

(via weexist-weresist)

That, I didn’t know. Well, there you go, folks.

(via stupidforeigners)

The Rape of Nanking should be remembered not only for the number of people slaughtered but for the cruel manner in which many met their deaths. Chinese men were used for bayonet practice and in decapitation contests. An estimated 20,000-80,000 Chinese women were raped. Many soldiers went beyond rape to disembowel women, slice off their breasts, nail them alive to walls. Fathers were forced to rape their daughters, and sons their mothers, as other family members watched. Not only did live burials, castration, the carving of organs, and the roasting of people become routine, but more diabolical tortures were practiced, such as hanging people by their tongues on iron hooks or burying people to their waists and watching them get torn apart by German shepherds. So sickening was the spectacle that even the Nazis in the city were horrified, one proclaiming the massacre to be the work of bestial machinery.

-

The rape of Nanking by Iris Chang.

(found Via here. Trigger warning for photos of disembodied heads.)

When people live extremely structured lives it makes sense that, when put in a situation without much structure at all, they will go off the handle and not really know when to stop.

(via thiswhitewidow)

Since so many people are reblogging this quote again, I’ve been very interested in its newfound popularity. This recent comment in particular caught my eye - I think it’s aiming for something that is correct but I don’t know that we could call something like the Rape of Nanjing unstructured, necessarily.

But - and I do think this is what happened - it does read exactly like the Stanford Prison experiment on a very real and very horrifying level. For anyone unfamiliar, the Stanford Prison Experiment was done by students and a professor at Stanford. A group of people was divided into ‘prisoners’ in the basement classrooms acting as the prison/cells and Prison Guards. The Professor became the Warden. They found that within six days, they had to shut down the experiment entirely. Enough ‘prisoners’ opted out: Prisoners had become passive, and Prison Guards inflicted physical and emotional abuse upon their prisoners. People began to internalize their roles of power, or lack thereof.

In otherwords, it’s the very structure of so much power that makes someone into the kind of person who would do this in their capacity as a soldier/guard. There is always structure when power is involved, and it can always be used and abused when hiding behind machine guns and uniforms.

According to one Japanese journalist embedded with Imperial forces at the time, “The reason that the [10th Army] is advancing to Nanking quite rapidly is due to the tacit consent among the officers and men that they could loot and rape as they wish.”[14]

Sadly, their structure from the very beginning was to do just that - abuse their power. This wasn’t chaotic. This was planned. And they followed through. That to me, is what is so horrorific. The Army intended to do this.

(Source: asianhistory, via thiswhitewidow)

The Rape of Nanking should be remembered not only for the number of people slaughtered but for the cruel manner in which many met their deaths. Chinese men were used for bayonet practice and in decapitation contests. An estimated 20,000-80,000 Chinese women were raped. Many soldiers went beyond rape to disembowel women, slice off their breasts, nail them alive to walls. Fathers were forced to rape their daughters, and sons their mothers, as other family members watched. Not only did live burials, castration, the carving of organs, and the roasting of people become routine, but more diabolical tortures were practiced, such as hanging people by their tongues on iron hooks or burying people to their waists and watching them get torn apart by German shepherds. So sickening was the spectacle that even the Nazis in the city were horrified, one proclaiming the massacre to be the work of bestial machinery.

-

The rape of Nanking by Iris Chang.

(found Via here. Trigger warning for photos of disembodied heads.)

The Porcelain Tower (or Porcelain Pagoda) of Nanjing (Chinese: 南京陶塔; pinyin: Nánjīng Táotǎ, or Chinese: 琉璃塔; pinyin: Liúlí Tǎ), also known as Bao’ensi (meaning “Temple of Gratitude”; Chinese: 大报恩寺, Da Bao’en Si), is a historical site located on the south bank of the Yangtze in Nanjing, China. It was a pagoda constructed in the 15th century during the Ming Dynasty, but was mostly destroyed in the 19th century during the course of the Taiping Rebellion.
The Porcelain Tower of Nanjing was designed during reign of the Yongle Emperor (r. 1402-1424) shortly before its construction, in the early 15th century. It was first discovered by the Western world when European travelers like Johan Nieuhof visited it, sometimes listing it as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. After this exposure to the outside world, the tower was seen as a national treasure to both locals and other cultures around the world.

In 1801, the tower was struck by lightning and the top three stories were knocked off, but it was soon restored. The 1843 book The Closing Events of the Campaign in China by Granville Gower Loch contains a detailed description of the tower as it existed in the early 1840s. In the 1850s, the area surrounding the tower erupted in civil war as the Taiping Rebellion reached Nanjing and the Taiping Rebels took over the city. They smashed the Buddhist images and destroyed the inner staircase to deny the Qing enemy an observation platform. American sailors reached the city in May 1854 and visited the hollowed tower. In 1856, the Taiping destroyed the tower in order to prevent a hostile faction from using it to observe and shell the city. After this point, the tower’s remnants were forgotten and it lay dormant until a recent surge to try to rebuild the landmark.

The tower was octagonal with a base of about 97 feet (30 m) in diameter. When it was built, the tower was one of the largest buildings in China, rising up to a height of 260 feet (79 m) with nine stories and a staircase in the middle of the pagoda, which spiraled upwards for 184 steps. The top of the roof was marked by a golden pineapple. There were originally plans to add more stories, according to an American missionary who in 1852 visited Nanjing. There are only a few Chinese pagodas that surpass its height, such as the still existent 275-foot-tall (84 m) 11th-century Liaodi Pagoda in Hebei or the no longer existent 330-foot-tall (100 m) 7th-century wooden pagoda of Chang’an.
The tower was built with white porcelain bricks that were said to reflect the sun’s rays during the day, and at night as many as 140 lamps were hung from the building to illuminate the tower. Glazes and stoneware were worked into the porcelain and created a mixture of green, yellow, brown and white designs on the sides of the tower, including animals, flowers and landscapes. The tower was also decorated with numerous Buddhist images.
text via Wikipedia see also: 7wonders.org

The Porcelain Tower (or Porcelain Pagoda) of Nanjing (Chinese: 南京陶塔; pinyin: Nánjīng Táotǎ, or Chinese: 琉璃塔; pinyin: Liúlí Tǎ), also known as Bao’ensi (meaning “Temple of Gratitude”; Chinese: 大报恩寺, Da Bao’en Si), is a historical site located on the south bank of the Yangtze in Nanjing, China. It was a pagoda constructed in the 15th century during the Ming Dynasty, but was mostly destroyed in the 19th century during the course of the Taiping Rebellion.

The Porcelain Tower of Nanjing was designed during reign of the Yongle Emperor (r. 1402-1424) shortly before its construction, in the early 15th century. It was first discovered by the Western world when European travelers like Johan Nieuhof visited it, sometimes listing it as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. After this exposure to the outside world, the tower was seen as a national treasure to both locals and other cultures around the world.

Original arched door side detail - Nanjing Museum

In 1801, the tower was struck by lightning and the top three stories were knocked off, but it was soon restored. The 1843 book The Closing Events of the Campaign in China by Granville Gower Loch contains a detailed description of the tower as it existed in the early 1840s. In the 1850s, the area surrounding the tower erupted in civil war as the Taiping Rebellion reached Nanjing and the Taiping Rebels took over the city. They smashed the Buddhist images and destroyed the inner staircase to deny the Qing enemy an observation platform. American sailors reached the city in May 1854 and visited the hollowed tower. In 1856, the Taiping destroyed the tower in order to prevent a hostile faction from using it to observe and shell the city. After this point, the tower’s remnants were forgotten and it lay dormant until a recent surge to try to rebuild the landmark.

Top of Arched door - Nanjing Museum

The tower was octagonal with a base of about 97 feet (30 m) in diameter. When it was built, the tower was one of the largest buildings in China, rising up to a height of 260 feet (79 m) with nine stories and a staircase in the middle of the pagoda, which spiraled upwards for 184 steps. The top of the roof was marked by a golden pineapple. There were originally plans to add more stories, according to an American missionary who in 1852 visited Nanjing. There are only a few Chinese pagodas that surpass its height, such as the still existent 275-foot-tall (84 m) 11th-century Liaodi Pagoda in Hebei or the no longer existent 330-foot-tall (100 m) 7th-century wooden pagoda of Chang’an.

The tower was built with white porcelain bricks that were said to reflect the sun’s rays during the day, and at night as many as 140 lamps were hung from the building to illuminate the tower. Glazes and stoneware were worked into the porcelain and created a mixture of green, yellow, brown and white designs on the sides of the tower, including animals, flowers and landscapes. The tower was also decorated with numerous Buddhist images.

text via Wikipedia see also: 7wonders.org